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High Level Language – Programming Languages

In this lecture we learn what is High Level Language and its types.

Programming Languages

A set of words, symbols and codes used to write programs is called program language. Different programming languages are available for writing different types of programs. Some languages are specially used for writing business program, other are used for writing scientific programs etc.

There are two types of computer programming languages:

  1. Low-level languages
  2. High-level languages

High Level Language

A type of language that is close to human language is called high level language. High –level language are easy to understand instruction of these language are written in English-like words such as input and print etc.

A program written in high-level language is easier to write and modify. High-level language  are further divided into following categories:

  1. Procedural Languages
  2. Object-Oriented Languages
  3. Non-Procedural Languages

Procedural Languages

Procedural language are also known as third-generation language or 3G. In these language, program is a predefined set of instructions. Computer executes these instructions in the same sequence in which the instructions are written. Each instruction in this language tells the computer what to do and how to do. Some most popular procedural language are:


FORTRAN stands for FOR mula TRANslation. It is mainly used for engineering application and scientific use.


BASIC stands for Beginner All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It was created in the late 1960. Is was used mainly by students to use the computer for solving simple problems. It is easy to understand. It is widely used for education purpose.


COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language. It is specially designed for business application. It was developed in early 1960s. The programs written in COBOL  are lengthy but easy read, write and maintain.


This language is used for both scientific and business application. Its name was assigned in the honor of a French mathematician pascal.

5. C

C language is a popular high-level language. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie at  AT & T Bell Laboratories in 1972. It was written as part of UNIX operating system. Is is also known as middle- level language because it provides the facilities to write application software as well as system software.

Object Oriented Language

OOP is a technique in which programs are written on the basis of object, An object is a collection of data and functions. Object may represent a person, thing or place in real world

In OOP, data and all possible functions on data are grouped together. Object oriented programs are easier to learn and modify. C++ & java are popular Object Oriented Language.

Features of Object- Oriented Programming

Following are some features of Object- Oriented Programming:

  • Object –  OOP provides the facility of programming based on object. Object is an entity that consists of data functions.
  • Classes – Classes are designs to create object. OOP provides facility to design classes to create different object. Properties and functions of objects are specified in classes.
  • Real –World Modeling   –  OOP is bases on real world modeling. As in real world thing have properties and working capabilities. Similarly, objects have data and functions. Data represent properties and functions represent working of object .
  • Reusability – OOP provides ways to reuse data and code. Inheritance is a technique  that allows a programmer to use code of existing program to create new programs.
  • Information Hiding- OOP allows the programmer to hide important data from the user. It is performed by encapsulation.
  • Polymorphism Polymorphism is an ability of an object to behave in multiple ways.


C++ is an object-oriented language. It was developed in 1980 at Bell Laboratories. This is an improved version of  C language. It provides the facility of working with objects and classes. It is very powerful language and used to develop a variety of programs.


Java is a high- level language. java designed by Sun Microsystems. It was primarily developed to control the microprocessors used in VSRM toasters and cable receivers etc. It provides powerful capabilities of network programming, Internet application and graphical user interface (GUI).

Non-procedural Languages

Non-procedural languages are also known as fourth generation languages or 4GL. In non-procedural languages, user only needs to tell the computer “what to do” not “how to do”. An important advantage of non procedural languages is that they can be used by non-procedural user to perform a specific task. These languages accelerate program process and reduce coding errors. 4GL are normally used in database application and report generation.

Some important non-procedural languages are as follows.

1. SQL

SQL stands for structure Query language. It is the most popular database query language. aql was developed by IBM. It was developed by IBM. it is a national standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). sql works with database programs like MS Access, DB2, Informix, MS sql, Server, Oracle, Sybase, etc.

2. RPG 

RPG stands for Report Program Generator. It was developed in early 1960s by IBM. It is used to generate business reports. It is a non-procedural language.It is mostly used with IBM mid-rang computers.

You Can Also Visit: Low Level Language

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